Figure 3 Factors influencing the mechanical stiffness of fascial tissues and their hypothesised impact. Injury of fascial tissues: cellular and mechanical responses to damage Excessive or prolonged loading or direct trauma to fascial tissues initiates micro and macro changes necessary for tissue repair.
Figure 4 Proposed timeline and mechanisms for fascial, adipose and muscle changes in the multifidus muscle after intervertebral disc lesion. Imaging and non-imaging tools for diagnosis and assessment Pathological changes in the mechanical properties of fascial tissues have been hypothesised to play an essential role in musculoskeletal disorders such as chronic pain conditions and overuse injuries. Table 1 Currently used diagnostic methods to examine fascial tissue structure and function. Figure 5 Tendon displacement measured by B-mode ultrasound. Mechanobiology of fascial tissues: effects of exercise and disuse The main principles of the above ultrasound-based methodology have been implemented in numerous studies over the last 20 years to study the adaptability of human tendons to exercise and disuse.
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