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  2. Liverpool: A city deeply connected with Europe
  3. Football and European Identity: Historical Narratives Through the Press
  4. Symbols, Trauma and European Identity | Euro Crisis in the Press

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You have 0 reference s not in folders. Duplicates Exact Duplicates Close Duplicates. We also see this in a second story in Mediawatch Even though it is not about TV drama primarily, it indicates the structural, transnational changes going on in the European TV culture.

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These articles from Mediawatch show that major structural changes in the European media landscape are taking place at present. But co-production is certainly not a new phenomenon in film and television. In fact Michele Hilmes in her book Network Nations defines the history of British and American broadcasting as a transnational history dating back to the radio culture in thes and continuing with television especially after She points to an interesting contradiction: on the one hand certain nations get very close in creative co-production, yet often distribution, marketing and audience discourses are constructed around the national Weissman, : However, what is constructed in distribution and reception discourses as national drama is in fact often a result of transnational co-production between established, networked nations.

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In other parts of the global television culture we find the same historical and contemporary tendency, not least between the public service television stations in Scandinavia. Co-production is not necessarily linked to a deep creative interaction at the level of narrative, editing, style selection of characters, themes and so on. Certain forms of co-production can certainly lead to transnationalisation of authorship, script writing or even clearly transnational stories as we see with the Swedish-Danish The Bridge or the British-French remake of it The Tunnel The crime genre on television is one of the genres where European co-production has resulted in quite advanced forms of transnational stories and creative collaboration.

The series had a common storyline, but the actual creative integration was limited by local, national versions of the overall concept and storyline. Here transnational crime stories deal with an actual, transnational reality, because police work is often done across national borders. This makes it more obvious to work with a transnational creative team and with actors from different countries in one, coherent storyline, with characters reappearing in all episodes and with a common style and editing. Crossing Lines and The Team are thus examples of a new creative strategy for transnational, European storytelling.

But such creative, transnational co-productions involving three or more countries can also cause problems in both production and reception. Co-production can additionally take a more financial, technical form between companies and broadcaster with a tradition for transnational alliances, but without shared influence on the story and creative product. However, the story, the cast and the creative construction of the whole series were mainly a national affair, although strong transnational elements and conflicts are involved at the story level.

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  • Such elements are not made though, to please an international audience or the co-production partners, but because the national reality in any European country when it comes to crime, involves global issues. There is no doubt however that the isolated, pure national production is also influenced by the transnational development and the fact that audiences today live in a much more global sphere of television drama consumption.

    Both theories indicate that in a global world, production networks and distribution still follow patterns related to cultural and linguistic proximity. National media enter into collaboration with partners and regions with which they have an affinity beyond just commercial and economic interests and benefits. As already indicated there is a strong and globally very dominant English speaking region the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, Australia of networked nations that also benefit globally by the fact that many countries have English as a second language.

    There are of course other regional structures, for instance in Eastern Europe. The main thing is that we can see in data on co-production and distribution within Europe that geographical, linguistic and cultural closeness play a role. There is no simple match though, and some of the regions mentioned above have different languages, and other factors are important as well, for instance types of institutional media culture.

    Finally, established patters of co-production and distribution can change over time—this is where the EU media policy and regional policy frameworks come in.

    Liverpool: A city deeply connected with Europe

    According to figures processed and analysed by the MeCETES research project Footnote 1 based on data from 13 European countries on co-production and distribution of TV drama series from — we see clear patterns of increased transnational distribution across Europe and also more developed co-production activities. But we also clearly see clusters of regional, collaborative networks that are related to the regions mentioned above Fig. Network of European co-productions shown on PSB stations based on data of all drama productions with European co-producers shown in 13 countries — What these figures show Footnote 2 is first of all that PSBs show more co-productions involving European co-producers than commercial TV-stations in Europe.

    Commercial stations rely more heavily on buying American series, and in many European countries, commercial stations show a lower amount of European productions and co-productions than PSBs. In Fig. The network of PSB-stations Fig. If we look at the networks from a regional perspective we do find a quite strong Scandinavian network for co-production and a very strong UK—US—Canada network, also involving South Africa and Australia.

    We can also see a Benelux-network, which although not very strong, is there. And then again, Germany occupies a central position in the network with relations to many other network segments, whereas the Southern European networks are dominated by France and Italy. The East European network is rather scattered and not very strong, but it is there. What we see in the periphery are non-European network partners, both in the commercial network and the PSB network.

    They indicate a wider globalisation in European co-productions, but not a very important and dominant influence, when it comes to formalized networks and co-production. The two figures are based on two perspectives. First, the inter-relations between countries are based on the countries of origin of co-producers, and thus which countries co-producing actors come from. Second, the distinction between commercial and public service broadcasters is introduced by looking at which channels the co-productions have been shown on.

    Football and European Identity: Historical Narratives Through the Press

    Network of European co-productions shown by commercial broadcasters based on data of all drama productions with European co-producers shown in 13 countries — As we shall see in the following discussion there is a clear effect of co-production networks also leading to wider European and global distribution. In fact the rise of European co-production since has led to a rather strong increase in the presence of European TV drama series on European channels, not least in the prime time slot — This is when we measure all types of TV fiction, not just TV drama series.

    If we just focus on TV drama series the national and other European share is in fact on the rise and the American share in decline. This tendency is also visible if we just look at prime time, where national and European series have in fact been more dominant than American series since If we take Denmark as a specific case, and look at just TV-drama series Footnote 3 from —, including re-runs of these series, we see a clear tendency towards a much stronger European and national share.

    If we look exclusively at the prime time slot, this tendency is clear in the sense that the European and national share is dominant through the whole period Fig. However, expanding this view and measuring the entire day schedule Fig.

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    • All TV fiction in Denmark —, regional shares of annual broadcast time including re-runs. Denmark, like the rest of the Scandinavian region, has a very strong public-service culture, where a few competing PSB stations dominate. This is one of the explanations for the strong national-European dimension of TV drama series.

      Also film production has a clear European profile, both in terms of network and co-production and at the box office. Denmark and other Scandinavian countries are therefore good cases, if you want to study European, mediated cultural encounters see below. But what is the case in Scandinavia is also to true for the rest of Europe.

      It is the PSB channels that primarily secure the broader cultural encounter for audiences with European TV drama series from other European countries than their own.

      Symbols, Trauma and European Identity | Euro Crisis in the Press

      But all in all there is an increase in transnational European series from more countries than earlier. If we take a closer look, the average figures hide big differences between countries. Furthermore, there are European countries that dominate European screens more than others. As shown in Fig. On the basis of Lange A phenomenon like the international success of the so-called Nordic noir wave is not visible in the quantitative overviews. But many observers, including Weissmann , see the recent attempt from UK broadcasters to invest in and import more foreign, European drama productions as a consequence of both globalisation and deregulation with many more channels appealing to the same audience.

      The co-production venture with Wallander Swedish version —, UK remake is part of this, although it was first shown in its original Swedish version, and then remade in an English version. More important is the rise in import of original, Scandinavian and European TV drama in the form of extended multiple co-productions like the French Spiral , the Flemish series Salamander — and Danish series like The Killing, Borgen, The Legacy and , or Scandinavian co-productions like The Bridge.

      Although such series only reach a minority audience on BBC 4, Weissmann sees the arrival of such series as a sign of the need for a broader national mix in transnational, TV drama production and distribution. The reception of such drama shows that they actually manage to set a transnational agenda.