Of the circumstances of his life we know nothing. He must have lived after Sextus Empiricus c. It is probable that he flourished during the reign of Alexander Severus a. His own opinions are equally uncertain. By some he was regarded as a Christian; but it seems more probable that he was an Epicurean. The work by which he is known professes to give an account of the lives and sayings of the Greek philosophers.
He treats his subject in two divisions which he describes as the Ionian and the Italian schools; the division is quite unscientific. The biographies of the former begin with Anaximander, and end with Clitomachus, Theophrastus and Chrysippus; the latter begins with Pythagoras, and ends with Epicurus. The Socratic school, with its various branches, is classed with the Ionic; while the Eleatics and sceptics are treated under the Italic. The whole of the last book is devoted to Epicurus, and contains three most interesting letters addressed to Herodotus, Pythocles and Menoeceus. From the statements of Burlaeus Walter Burley, a 14th-century monk in his De vita et moribus philosophorum the text of Diogenes seems to have been much fuller than that which we now possess.
In addition to the Lives , Diogenes was the author of a work in verse on famous men, in various metres. Jacobitz with commentary ; C. Cobet , text only. See F. Maass, De biographis Graecis ; V. Egger, De fontibus Diog. There is an English translation by C.
It formed the basis of the lexicon, or rather glossary, of Hesychius of Alexandria, which is described in the preface as a new edition of the work of Diogenianus. We still possess a collection of proverbs under his name, probably an abridgment of the collection made by himself from his lexicon ed.
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Leutsch and F. Schneidewin in Paroemiographi Graeci , i. Diogenianus was also the author of an Anthology of epigrams, of treatises on rivers, lakes, fountains and promontories; and of a list with map of all the towns in the world. The repulsive smell of animal sacrifices is enough to show their monstrous absurdity.
Next Judaism is attacked. Jews abstain from idolatry and worship one God, but they fall into the same error of repulsive sacrifice, and have absurd superstitions about meats and sabbaths, circumcision and new moons. In spite of blameless lives they are hated. Their home is in heaven, while they live on earth. The soul is enclosed in the body, and yet itself holdeth the body together: so Christians are kept in the world as in a prison-house, and yet they themselves hold the world together.
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No man could have known God, had He not thus declared Himself. For God loved men, for whose sake He made the world Knowing Him, thou wilt love Him and imitate His goodness; and marvel not if a man can imitate God; he can, if God will. Even this rapid summary may show that the writer was a man of no ordinary power, and there is no other early Christian writing outside the New Testament which appeals so strongly to modern readers. The letter has been often classed with the writings of the Apostolic Fathers, and in some ways it seems to mark the transition from the sub-apostolic age to that of the Apologists.
Harnack and others would place it later, perhaps in the 3rd century. There are some striking parallels in method and language to the Apology of Aristides q. The one manuscript which contained this letter perished by fire at Strassburg in , but happily it had been accurately collated by Reuss nine years before. It formed part of a collection of works supposed to be by Justin Martyr, and to this mistaken attribution its preservation is no doubt due.
Both thought and language mark the author off entirely from Justin. The end of the letter is lost, but there followed in the codex the end of a homily, 1 which was attached without a break to the epistle: this points to the loss in some earlier codex of pages containing the end of the letter and the beginning of the homily. The Epistle may be read in J. In the Iliad he is the favourite of Athena, by whose aid he not only overcomes all mortals who venture to oppose him, but is even enabled to attack the gods. In the post-Homeric story, he made his way with Odysseus by an underground passage into the citadel of Troy and carried off the Palladium, the presence of which within the walls secured Troy against capture Virgil, Aeneid , ii.
On his return to Argos, finding that his wife had been unfaithful, he removed to Aetolia, and thence to Daunia Apulia , where he married the daughter of King Daunus.
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He was buried or mysteriously disappeared on one of the islands in the Adriatic called after him Diomedeae, his sorrowing companions being changed into birds by the gods out of compassion Ovid, Metam. He was the reputed founder of Argyrippa Arpi and other Italian cities Aeneid , xi. He was worshipped as a hero not only in Greece, but on the coast of the Adriatic, as at Thurii and Metapontum. At Argos, his native place, during the festival of Athena, his shield was carried through the streets as a relic, together with the Palladium, and his statue was washed in the river Inachus.
He was the author of an extant Ars grammatica in three books, dedicated to a certain Athanasius. Diomedes wrote about the same time as Charisius q. The works of both grammarians are valuable, but whereas much of Charisius has been lost, the Ars of Diomedes has come down to us complete. In book i. The best edition is in H. DION, tyrant of Syracuse b. In his youth he was an admirer and pupil of Plato, whom Dionysius had invited to Syracuse; and he used every effort to inculcate the maxims of his master in the mind of the tyrant. The stern morality of Dion was distasteful to the younger Dionysius, and the historian Philistus, a faithful supporter of despotic power, succeeded in procuring his banishment on account of alleged intrigues with the Carthaginians.
This last outrage roused Dion. Assembling a small force at Zacynthus, he sailed to Sicily and was received with demonstrations of joy. Dionysius, who was in Italy, returned to Sicily, but was defeated and obliged to flee. Dion himself was soon after supplanted by the intrigues of Heracleides, and again banished.
The incompetency of the new leader and the cruelties of Apollocrates, the son of Dionysius, soon led to his recall. He had, however, scarcely made himself master of Sicily when the people began to express their discontent with his tyrannical conduct, and he was assassinated by Callippus, an Athenian who had accompanied him in his expedition.
See Lives by Plutarch and Cornelius Nepos cf. Lau ; see also Syracuse and Sicily : History. As the oracle declined in importance, her place as the wife of Zeus was taken by Hera. It is probable that in very early times the cult of Dione existed in Athens, where she had an altar before the Erechtheum. After her admission to the general religious system of the Greeks, Dione was variously described. In the Iliad v.
In Hesiod Theog. Iliad , xviii.madhconsbedfioti.cf
Others make her a Titanid, the daughter of Uranus and Gaea Apollodorus i. In Attica there were two festivals annually. It was accompanied by songs, dance, phallic processions and the impromptu performances of itinerant players, who with others from the city thronged to take part in the excitement of the rustic sports.
This was a festival of joy at the departure of winter and the promise of summer, Dionysus being regarded as having delivered the people from the wants and troubles of winter. The religious act of the festival was the conveying of the ancient image of the god, which had been brought from Eleutherae to Athens, from the ancient sanctuary of the Lenaeum to a small temple near the Acropolis and back again, with a chorus of boys and a procession carrying masks and singing the dithyrambus.
The festival culminated in the production of tragedies, comedies and satyric dramas in the great theatre of Dionysus. Other festivals in honour of Dionysus were the Anthesteria q. Mommsen, Feste der Stadt Athen ; L.