PDF Lhyperactivité infantile en 90 questions (Education) (French Edition)

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Service universitaire de psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent
  1. Enjeux de professionnalisation et de formation de… – Phronesis – Érudit
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The resulting envy is accompanied by demotivation of the staff and destruction of the ties that are essential to the realization of the overall objective.

Enjeux de professionnalisation et de formation de… – Phronesis – Érudit

Consequently, teamwork, which is essential to improving client service quality, is hampered. Destruction of the ties can also occur at a more general level. Under the influence of envy, the ties between the departments dissolve and the organization can no longer function correctly. Thus, the main effect of envy is to damage the relations and ties that exist within organizations, either between individuals or between departments and groups. Envy prevents cohesion; it damages, dismantles, and destroys the very foundations of the organization.

This dissatisfaction can take a number of forms. A study involving individuals with managerial jobs in the industrial and service sectors8 shows a clear link between dissatisfaction with work and the feeling of envy. When individuals are envious of colleagues — whom, they feel, benefit from more support and are better appreciated than they are — they also feel less satisfied with work than the individuals who are not or less envious. This is hardly surprising since, when they compare themselves to others, the envious feel that they are worth less than the others and consequently can only see what is unsatisfactory and disappointing in their own situation.

Envy is associated with frustration and bitterness.

It throws a gray cover over everything. To envious individuals everything is dull; they feel that their situation is nowhere near what they desire or what they believe is desirable from the point of view of people who are better off than they are. By a contrast effect, envy then enhances the projects that have failed; the desires and wishes the envious individuals have not fulfilled. Envy is always associated with a gap between a real situation and an ideal, or at least better, situation. So no wonder it is accompanied with a feeling of dissatisfaction!

Moreover, as envy decreases group cohesiveness and potency, it also diminishes group satisfaction. The above-mentioned study of student teams shows this relation quite clearly. Some feel that their relationship with their superior is based on trust and respect, that their manager understands them, and that they have formed a good relationship.

Others establish a distant and formal relationship based on their compliance to certain rules, rather than a personal and therefore more emotionally involved relationship. People who enjoy good relationships with their boss tend to stay in their team for longer, are more satisfied with their job, and find their work more fulfilling. It is difficult to determine which is the cause and which is the effect the study gives no explanation in this regard : does feeling envious lead to resentment against the system as a whole or more specifically towards the direct superiors, who are the representatives of this system?

Or is it because employees do not get on with their boss that they tend to think that the latter favors some team members over others and therefore contributes to the development of envy? Whatever the answer might be, the fact that envy comes with a perceived poor relationship between employees and their boss does nothing to make the envious individuals feel more satisfied at work.

Self-isolation and depression As discussed in Chapter 1, one of the central aspects of envy is the fact that envious individuals tend to compare themselves unfavorably to others, and as a result feel inferior to others. The consequent risk is that they might not be able to overcome this feeling of inferiority and might get stuck in the belief that the gap between the others and themselves is related to their own shortcomings.

The psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan12 phrased this point: Envy is not pleasant because any formulation of it — any implicit process connected with it — necessarily starts with the point that you need something, some material thing that, unhappily, someone else has. Envy can lead to depressive behavior. The envious can then be incapable of restoring the cognitive and emotional balance they need to be able to undertake new projects.

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Why should they try and move forward when everything they undertake ends up pointing to their limitations and their Why persist in wishing for something they are incapable of achieving, but which other people do achieve? Envy can degenerate into depression when the answers to these types of question generate a lasting feeling of impotence and cause them to close in on themselves. The envious might also avoid competition and occasions of comparison as the latter leave them in excruciating doubt about their own abilities. They are both performing on-the-job training at the purchase center of a large distribution group.

But Fanny feels that Cecilia has extra qualities self-confidence and relational ease that make all the difference. This difference makes Fanny feel she is not up to what is expected of her.

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Fanny focuses on the qualities she feels she does not possess. Cecilia is a reflection of Fanny, but a reflection that is distorted by the unbearable difference. My relationship with Cecilia was conditioned by my desire to do better than her, all the more so as Cecilia was an outgoing and dynamic person who adapted well and who easily interacted with others. At the beginning of the training course, I felt a lot of uncertainty about my future and feared that I would be compared to Cecilia, that I would work less efficiently than she did. I then started comparing myself to her, identifying with her and doubting my own choices [.

In her presence I felt transparent, I felt I had no place there and that I had nothing to offer to anyone around me. For example, at the beginning of the training period, when we had lunch with other members of the team, I found it Preoccupied about my relationship with Cecilia, I did not interact with others and did not try to get to know them [. I was obsessed with this relationship [. And as time passed this relationship became more and more unbearable.

Not knowing how to handle the situation, I distanced myself. What is paradoxical is that during my assignments I tended to identify with her work, to follow her ideas and therefore I did not assert myself. Moreover, I felt lost because I felt my missions and objectives were not clearly defined; I was afraid of the unknown and of the void and Cecilia was perhaps the solution.

She is afraid of taking initiatives and, fearing she will fail or make the wrong decisions, prefers to copy her training mate. This period is accompanied by emotional pain and depressive isolation. Fortunately, she eventually learns to look at her situation from a more distant perspective, and as a result, manages to evolve, take more initiatives, and become more autonomous.

One of the factors that helped Fanny in this process was the fact that after a few months, the department in which both students were working went through organizational changes. This reorganization clearly separated the sports department, where Cecilia was working, from the gardening department, where Fanny was. Envy can then generate violence and aggression, the envious individuals wishing to destroy the object of envy, to deprive the envied of their perceived advantage or to sabotage his or her reputation.

All these attempts are made in order to eliminate what is at the origin of envy and re-establish what the envious perceive as a fair balance between the envied and themselves. Indeed, the followers of Melanie Klein17 have shown that envy arises very early in the psychological development of human beings and that it can lead to aggressive behaviors that are sometimes extremely destructive, including for the envious people themselves.

In organizations, aggressive behavior related to envy is a common phenomenon. This does not mean that aggressive behavior is the most frequent consequence of envy, but that the other consequences can be more difficult or even impossible to pinpoint, whereas aggressiveness and attack are more noticeable.

Harming the reputation of the envied person Envious individuals can, to start with, be content with verbally attacking and belittling the people they envy, by harming their reputation, and by drawing attention to some of their limitations. The envious can even resort to slander in an attempt to destroy the integrity of the envied.

Case 6: A biased committee19 In a New Zealand university, a particularly gifted young lecturer is unfairly assessed by an evaluation committee, some members of which are envious of her qualities.

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The committee must decide whether this young lecturer should be given tenure or not. Instead of attacking her directly, the envious members of the committee exploit the ambiguity of certain evaluation rules in They justify their rejection by giving a high priority to the criteria related to administrative responsibilities, and in so doing discard the exceptional academic qualities of the applicant as secondary.

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What is more, they intentionally undervalue the administrative work she has performed in the department, taking advantage of the fact that the members of the committee do not all have access to the relevant information. In other cases, the attack is more direct. The philosopher Schopenhauer was well known for systematically trying to oust his rivals, particularly those who aspired to the title of Master. He had no qualms in belittling and criticizing the people he envied, even when they were recognized philosophers. When the relevant department offered to reschedule his lectures, Schopenhauer preferred to resign from the university.

Envy and sabotage Envy can also lead the envious to actions that are nothing short of sabotage. I have already discussed the example of the two departments that prevented the academic department from conducting their workshop in ideal conditions. Let us now look at the following example.

https://kinun-houju.com/wp-content/bipotyfad/2866.php She accepts a position as a purchasing agent in the marketing department of a distance-selling company. She works under the supervision of Martine, the supply and purchasing The latter also works with an assistant: Caroline has a postgraduate diploma, is about the same age as Karine, and has been working in the company for several years.

It soon becomes clear that her post will not be filled and that, when she returns to work, Martine will be assigned a new position in a different department. Thus, after only a few weeks, Karine is given what Caroline has been coveting. Caught in the grip of envy, the latter appears to have become hostile to Karine, wishing her harm and endangering her reputation by jeopardizing some of her missions, preventing her from achieving deadlines, etc. Envy and destruction When envy is very strong, it can really lead an envious individual to destroy the people they envy or what they possess.

Many traditional tales illustrate this aspect of envy. Thus, the famous Judgment of Solomon depicts two women who have given birth. One of them Called in to solve the dispute, King Solomon asks for a sword so as to cut the surviving infant in two and give each woman her share of the baby. One accepts, whereas the other refuses, preferring to give the baby away to the other woman rather than see him die.

According to Solomon, this is a sign that she is the true mother of the child. As for the envious woman, her intentions are clear: deprive the mother of her child by killing him if need be. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, Satan envies God, the creator of life, of the world and of all that exists. By bringing temptation, division, and conflict, Satan destroys the harmony and the perfection of the original creation. But envious individuals can also engage in behaviors that have harmful consequences for themselves.

Envy can thus motivate people to act in ways that reduce the absolute level of their possible outcomes. In some cases, this means that they are prepared to destroy the system they, themselves, depend upon, if it also results in the destruction of the envied subject. This aspect is clearly apparent in the Gucci case described below. Case 8: Gucci or mutual annihilation24 The Gucci affair is a striking example of destructive envy.

Driven by envy, different members of the Gucci family, who were also shareholders in the company, spent enormous amounts of money suing one another for decades over legal disputes. Judge William C.

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